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In-text Citations

Copy the information below in your paper according to the Intext Citation Guide. Use your own page numbers.

APA In-text Citation Guide

Examples: (choose depending if author and/or date is mentioned in text)

Quotation:

  • "The bones were very fragile" (Cole, 2011 p. 13).
  • Cole (2011) found that "The bones were very fragile" (p. 33).
  • In 2011, Cole found that "The bones were very fragile" (p. 33).

Paraphrase:

  • The bones broke easily because they were porous. (Cole, 2011, p. 13).
  • Cole (2011) discovered that the bones broke easily.
  • In 2011, Cole found that the bones were easily broken (p. 33).
  1. No authors: Use the title in place of author. Shorten title if needed.
  2. Two or more authors: Within the text used the word and. If the authors’ names are within parentheses use the & symbol. e.g.
    • Cole and Dough (1998) argued …
    • …if they were left to their own devices.(Cole & Dough, 1998)
  3. Three to five authors: include all authors’ last names the first time the citation is used. If you use the same citation again within the same paragraph, use only the first last name followed by ‘et al’. If you used the citation again omit the year. e.g.
    • First time: Cole, Dough and Ferris (1998) explained…
    • Second time: Cole et al. (1998) proved …
    • Third time: Cole et al. demonstrated…
  4. Six or more authors: Include first author's name followed by "et al."
  5. If the quotation is over 40 words, you must indent the entire quotation and start the quotation on a new line. No quotation marks are required. e.g.

    Alberta is occasionally divided into two regions, Northern Alberta and Southern Alberta. The majority of Alberta's population is located in large urban cities, mostly located in the South. Alberta is Canada's most populous province of all three Canadian prairie provinces. Edmonton is the Capital of Alberta (Herick, 1996, p. 22).

  6. When paraphrasing, APA style encourages the inclusion of page numbers, but it is not mandatory. Include page or paragraph numbers if it will help reader find the information. If the document does not contain page numbers, paragraph numbers may be used. e.g. (Reiton, 2003, para. 3). If neither is available omit page and paragraph numbers. Do not count paragraph numbers. e.g. (Reiton, 2003)
  7. When paraphrasing from multiple sources, include all authors name in parentheses in alphabetical order. e.g. (Cole, 1996; Manning & Arthur, 2011; Zigmung, 2000).
MLA In-text Citation Guide

Option 1. If author's name is not in text

  • direct quote example: He stated, "The bones were very fragile" (Cole 33-34).
  • paraphrase example: He found that the bones broke easily (Cole 33-34).
Option 2. If author's name is in text:
  • direct quote example: Cole found that "The bones were very fragile" (33-34).
  • paraphrase example: Cole discovered that the bones broke easily (33-34).

More information:

  • If there is no author, use the title and shorten if necessary
  • If pages numbers are not available, but paragraph numbers are available include paragraph numbers. Use "par" for a single paragraph and "pars" for multiple paragraphs. If the paragraphs are not marked in the document do not include paragraph numbers.
    e.g.(Louis par. 20)
  • If no page or paragraph numbers are available you have the option to include the approximate location of the information in the article.
    e.g. In the last third of his paper, Louis demonstrates...
  • If your work cited page contains multiple references by the same author, include the author's last name and a full or shortened version of their work and the page number. e.g.(Feder, The Birth of a Nation 124)
  • If the quotation is over 4 lines, you must indent the whole quotation and start the quotation on a new line. No quotation marks are required. Notice the placement of the period is before the brackets for long quotations. e.g.

    Alberta is occasionally divided into two regions, Northern Alberta and Southern Alberta. The majority of Alberta's population is located in large urban cities, mostly located in the South. Alberta is Canada's most populous Province of all three Canadian prairie provinces. Edmonton is the Capital of Alberta. (Herick 22)

Chicago In-text Citation Guide
  • In Chicago style, footnotes or endnotes are used to reference pieces of work in the text.
  • To cite from a source a superscript number is placed after a quote or a paraphrase.
  • Citation numbers should appear in sequential order.
  • Each number then corresponds to a citation, a footnote or to an endnote.
  • Endnotes must appear on an endnotes page. The page should be titled Notes (centered at top).¬†This page should appear immediately before the bibliography page.
  • Footnotes must appear at the bottom of the page that they are referred to. ¬†

Example: 
Cole found that "The bones were very fragile" (33-34).1

Each superscript then refers to a numbered citation in the footnotes or endnotes.

Footnotes/endnotes:

The first time the in-text reference is cited you must include, author's first name, author's last name, title, place of publication, publisher name, year and referenced pages. e.g.

1. James Smith, The first and last war, (New York, Hamilton, 2003), 2.

If the citation has already been cited it may be shortened to author's last name, shortened title, and page referenced number. e.g.

2. Smith, The first, 220-221.

If the citation has been referenced immediately prior, the note may be shortened even further to ibid with the page number. e.g.

3. Ibid., 786.

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